Categories
Revelation in the Old Testament (OT)

Chapter 5 – Deuteronomy 28 and Revelation

From the beginning, God warned that He would remove life-sustaining resources when people refused to stop breaking His laws in the Bible.


The Curse of Heat and Drought [1]
“Covid-19 Virus” by NIAID-RML.

Moses’ prophecies in Deuteronomy 28 are repeated in Revelation; God sends plagues, removes life-sustaining resources, and civilization collapses.


The simplest way to know the future is to look at the past. God made it abundantly clear that His beautiful laws build us up and disobedience to those laws tears us down. At some point, if we do not turn back to God, He will stop us from not only destroying ourselves through lawlessness, but everyone around us. Instead of God’s blessings (that build up through obedience to His laws), we open the door to curses (that tear us down through disobedience to His laws).

            The nation of Egypt experienced those curses through the ten plagues of Moses. The nation of Israel experienced those curses after many warnings by the prophets bringing the fall of Samaria in B.C. 722 and the fall of Jerusalem in B.C. 586. From the beginning, God forewarned all the major consequences of sin–curses that would tear down–in Moses’ fifth book in the Bible in the Old Testament (OT), Deuteronomy 28-29. All the nations of this earth will experience those curses–for all will have turned away from God in lawlessness (against the laws of God in the Bible, not the corrupted laws of men)–during the days of Revelation (the last book in the Bible in the New Testament (NT)) surrounding the second coming of the Son of God, Jesus Christ.

            For decades, we have been seeing the beginning of the curses of Deuteronomy gradually mounting across the world in dual fulfillment of both Moses’ prophecies and Jesus’ prophecies in the last book of the Bible, Revelation. In the first four (4) trumpets, bowls, and seals of Revelation, our planet’s lands, oceans, terrestrial waters, and skies are disintegrating and diminishing life-sustaining resources. These are the curses humankind brings upon ourselves because of our sins in combination with the judgment of God against those sins. Jesus declares, “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come; worship Him who made the heaven and the earth and sea and springs of waters,” (Rev 14:7) for He alone can heal our planet. “If My people who are called by My name humble themselves and pray and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, will forgive their sin and will heal their land,” (2 Chron 7:14). The world will reject God and His laws (Psa 2). Even the church will fall away into apostasy (2 Thess 2:1-4). Jesus said that this global decline leading to catastrophe would come just like the days of Noah–plenty of warnings before the total collapse of civilization–and commands us saying, “Be ready,” (Matt 24:37-44).

            Here are a few of God’s warnings of His judgement from the very beginning. The same principles apply. Such warnings and events began in the Pentateuch and continued throughout the prophets. What happened to one nation in the Prophets will eventually happen to the world in Revelation. Egypt’s fall in the day of Moses was only one such example. These Old Testament (OT) prophecies are the foundation filling in the details for the coming global judgment in Revelation. “For I, the Lord, do not change,” (Mal 3:6) “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come; worship Him who made the heaven and the earth and sea and springs of waters,” (Rev14:7) Compare them to what we see happening on earth today. (I’ll do that later in depth in five chapters covering events today on the land, seas, waters, skies, and extreme weather.)

Deuteronomy 28 & 29 compared to Revelation

Scorching Heat on Land (Rev 7:16; 8:7; 16:8-9)

Deut 28:22            The Lord will smite you . . . with fiery heat.

Deut 28:23            The heaven which is over your head shall be bronze, and the earth which is under you, iron.

Destruction of Waters (Rev 8:10; 16:4-6, 12)

Deut 28:24            The Lord will make the rain of your land powder and dust; from heaven it shall come down on you until you are destroyed.

Deut 29:19            It shall be when he hears the words of this curse, that he will boast, saying, “I have peace though I walk in the stubbornness of my heart in order to destroy the watered                                                         land with the dry.”

Deut 29:22-23      They see the plagues of the land and the diseases with which the Lord has afflicted it, and will say,  All its land is brimstone and salt, a burning waste, unsown and unproductive, and no grass grows in it, like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah,  Admah and Zeboiim, which the Lord overthrew in His anger and in His wrath.”

Destruction of Crops and Herds (Rev 6:5-6)

Deut 28:24            The Lord will make the rain of your land powder and dust; from heaven it shall come down on you until you are destroyed.

Deut 28:22            The Lord will smite you with . . . blight and with mildew, and they will pursue you until you perish.

Deut 28:30            You shall plant a vineyard, but you will not use its fruit.

Deut 28:38-40      You shall bring out much seed to the field but you will gather in little, for the locust will consume it. You shall plant and cultivate vineyards, but you will neither drink of the wine nor gather the grapes, for the worm will devour them. You shall have olive trees throughout your territory but you will not anoint yourself with the oil, for your olives will drop off.

Deut 28:42                 The cricket shall possess all your trees and the produce of your ground.

Migrations, Conquests, and Wars Involving Life-Sustaining Resources (Rev 6:2-4; 13:7)

Deut 28:25            The Lord shall cause you to be defeated before your enemies.

Deut 28:29            You shall only be oppressed and robbed continually, with none to save you.

Deut 28:31                Your ox shall be slaughtered before your eyes, but you will not eat of it; your donkey shall be torn away from you, and will not be restored to you; your sheep shall be given to your enemies, and you will have none to save you.

Deut 28:33            A people whom you do not know shall eat up the produce of your ground and all your labors, and you will never be anything but oppressed and crushed continually.

Deut 28:47-53      Because you did not serve the Lord your God with joy and a glad heart, for the abundance of all things; therefore you shall serve your enemies whom the Lord will send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, and in the lack of all things; and He will put an iron yoke on your neck until He has destroyed you. The Lord will bring a nation against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as the eagle swoops down, a nation whose language you shall not understand, a nation of fierce countenance who will have no respect for the old, nor show favor to the young. Moreover, it shall eat the offspring of your herd and the produce of your ground until you are destroyed, who  also leaves you no grain, new wine, or oil, nor the increase of       your herd or the young of your flock until they have caused you to perish. It shall besiege you in all your towns until your high and fortified walls in which you trusted come down throughout your land, and it shall besiege you in all your towns throughout your land which the Lord your God has given you. Then you shall eat the offspring of your own body, the flesh of your sons and of your daughters whom the Lord your God has given you, during the siege and the distress by which your enemy will oppress you.

Deut 28:64-66      The Lord will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth; and there you shall serve other gods, wood and stone, which you or your fathers have not known. Among those nations you shall find no rest, and there will be no resting place for the sole of your foot; but there the Lord will give you a trembling heart, failing of eyes, and despair of soul. So your life shall hang in doubt before you; and you will be in dread night and day, and shall have no assurance of your life.

Deut 29:28            The Lord uprooted them from their land in anger and in fury and in great wrath, and cast them into another land.

Diseases and Massive Death of Humans (Rev 6:8; 13:15; 16:2, 11)

Deut 28:21-22      The Lord will make the pestilence cling to you until He has consumed you from the land where you are entering to possess it. The Lord will smite you with consumption and with fever and with inflammation and with fiery heat and with the sword and with blight and with mildew, and they will pursue you until you perish.

Deut 28:26-27      Your carcasses will be food to all birds of the sky and to the beasts of the earth, and there will be no one to frighten them away. The Lord will smite you with the boils of Egypt and with tumors and with the scab and with the itch, from which you cannot be healed.

Deut 28:35            The Lord will strike you on the knees and legs with sore boils, from which you cannot  be healed, from the sole of your foot to the crown of your head.

Deut 28:59-61      The Lord will bring extraordinary plagues on you and your descendants, even severe and lasting  plagues, and miserable and chronic sicknesses. He will bring back on you all the diseases of  Egypt of which you were afraid, and they will cling to you. Also every sickness and every plague which, not written in the book of this law, the Lord will bring on you until you are destroyed.

Deut 28:62-63      Then you shall be left few in number, whereas you were as numerous as the stars of heaven, because you did not obey the Lord your God. It shall come about that as the Lord delighted over you to prosper you, and multiply you, so the Lord will delight over you to make you perish and destroy you.

           In Deuteronomy 28 and 29, God made it crystal clear that following His beautiful, edifying laws would build up a person or people, while disobeying them would tear down not just the individual–but as sin spread–the family, the neighborhood, the community, the city, and eventually the country. When sin spreads across country to country–think of today’s global communication, global transportation, global economy, global education, global travel, . . .–then as during the days of Noah, the whole world would be torn down. Human sin is poisonous enough, but when God adds pure justice through His judgment to stop the disease of darkness deteriorating the earth, Revelation says there will be a global collapse of civilization. This will be the end of man’s reign his way through to sin and destruction and the beginning of Christ’s reign on earth God’s way rebuilding the planet back to Eden. “Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done.”

                Deuteronomy 28 fills in details between the lines for Revelation’s declivity of earth’s ecosystems foreshadowing the first four trumpets, bowls, and seals. However, the ten plagues in Exodus provide the most powerful comparison to the plagues of Revelation. What God has done before (to one nation), He will do again (to all the nations on earth). In the next chapter, let us compare the ten plagues of Egypt to today’s global condition and the emerging plagues of Revelation on this planet today. We are forewarned.


            [1] The Curse of Heat and Drought Image by Tumius on Pixabay: climate change, drought, environment, desert. “Tiger Mosquito” Image by Wikilmages from Pixabay. “Carcass” of Kudu by Ivko Horvat from Pixabay. “Tick” by Marc Pascual from Pixabay. Tick carries Lyme pandemic. Droughts and Crop Loss found on Wikimedia Commons for 2012 Drought in U.S. C.f. Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). “Drought ranks second in terms of national weather-related economic impacts, with annual losses nearing $9 billion per year in the U.S.” https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/drought-and-climate-change.” “Starving Child” by Dr. Lyle Conrad, public domain. PD-U.S. Gov source at http://phil.cdc.gov/ image ID:6901. Picture of the Day on Wikimedia Commons on August 16, 2008. The innocent suffer from the sins of leaders. Personal note: I once picked up a child off a street in Bangladesh who looked just like this picture. No hospital would take him because doctors said, “He could die any minute.” With a lot of prayer and the family’s permission, an Australian orphanage eventually opened a place for him. A year later, I received a picture of Amin–fat, healthy laughing with friends, receiving education. God answers prayer.

            [2] Actual image of real “Covid-19 Virus” by NIAID-RML. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH). Photo from scanning electron microscope showing SARS-CoV-2 (yellow), also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19, isolated from a patient in the U.S. emerging from the surface of humans cells (pink/blue). February 30, 2020. Article: “New Images of Novel Coronavirus-SARS-CoV2 Now Available.” https://www.niaid.nih.gov/news-events/novel-coronaviru-sars-cov2-images. nytimes.com coronavirus update on 7/17/20: In U.S., 3,512,700 infected and 137,000 died. In world, 13.5 infected and 583,960 died. John Hopkins CSSE: Top countries in infections and deaths: (1) U.S. (2) Brazil (3) Russia (4) Mexico (China is lower and leveling as government takes action).

Categories
First Trumpet and Bowl in Revelation

Chapter 9 – Land in Revelation and Science

A third of the earth will be burned up.


NASA Satellite: Earth Is Burning

Burning earth includes fires, droughts, deforestation, and pests destroying massive forests decreasing carbon sinks and increasing carbon sources.


Rev 8:7            [Part A] The first sounded, and there came hail and fire, mixed with blood, and they were thrown to the earth; and  [Part B] a third of the earth was burned up, and a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up.

Rev 16:2 [Part A] The first angel went and poured out his bowl in the earth; and [Part B] it became a loathsome and malignant sore on the people who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image.

NOTE: Part A is mostly symbolic (except the angel(s) is real). Hail, fire, and blood, as well as, pouring out the bowl on earth represent the tremendous power of God coming down from heaven onto the earth to execute His judgment (Rev 14:7). Part B is literal. Please look at NASA’s yearly “Wildfires from Space” showing satellite photos from space taken by MODIS revealing massive fires all over the earth.[1]


The word for “burned” in Revelation 8:7 is used three times, but the word “fire” is not there. Some may assume that the land, trees, and grass burn only from fire. However, vegetation can be “burned” by heat waves, droughts, pests, even “ice burns” as in the tundra due to warming, as well as literal conflagrations.

            Global temperature rise is generating heat waves and droughts, desiccating soils and vegetation, augmenting ferocity and frequency of fires. The increasing numbers of forest fires are in direct proportion to earth’s rising temperatures.[2] Since atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)and global temperatures are steadily increasing, it is no surprise that most of earth’s warming has taken place in the last 35 years, with the six warmest years on record since 2014–every year to 2020 (as I write).[3] The USDA reported that around the world, fire seasons are an average of 78 days longer than they were in 1970, and the number of acres scorched each year has doubled since 1980. The hotter it gets, the worse the fires. Forests cool lands, store water, and release water vapor necessary for rain. The fewer forests, the less water, the worse the fires, (the more greenhouse gases go into the atmosphere), the worse the heat; a dearth of forests creates hotter weather. Hotter weather ignites hotter fires.

            “By most accounts, deforestation in tropical rainforests adds more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than the sum total of cars and trucks on the world’s roads” (transportation is 14% and deforestation is 15%).[4] By August 2019, the Brazilian Amazon had 75,336 fires since January. This number exceeded the previous year by 85%. Brazil’s space research agency (INPE) said that humans were primarily to blame due to slash and burn. NASA’s Earth Observatory released images showing the smoke was so bad that it darkened the skies above São Paulo at midday.[5] Twenty percent of the Amazon has already burned down. At the current rate of burning, the Amazon will be savannah or desert by 2100.

            This is one of the feedback cycles fueling global warming. According to the U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), half the world’s forests have been cleared by deforestation. In 2017, humanity destroyed an expanse of tropical forest nearly the size of England.[6] According to researchers from the University of Maryland, a third of that area (14,000 sq. mi.) was primary rainforest. In 2015, massive forests burned in Indonesian islands presenting serious health threats to millions of people across Southeast Asia.[7]

            Global warming is already igniting unprecedented mega-fires and extending fire seasons in the U.S. “Between 1950 and 2000 the number of major fires on the American continent increased from two per decade to fifty per decade.”[8] Randy Anderson, a twenty-four-year head wilderness firefighter pointed out that in 1987, the biggest fire in the western U.S. was the Dude Fire burning 20,000 acres, shocking everyone. “Today, we’re seeing 400,000 acre fires.”[9] The U.S. Forest Service reports that “each year, an average of more than 73,000 wildfires burn about 7 million acres of private, state and federal land and more than 2,600 structures.”[10]

            In the California fires of 2007, 2008, 2012, and 2015, an average of a million acres were burned in each of those years.[11] The governor of California stated, “There’s no more fire season, we have wildfires year around.”[12] Over the last 10 years, an average of 745,000 acres burned per year in that one state. According to Harvard University scientists, the area burned by wildfires in the American West is expected to increase by 50 percent by 2050 due to rising heat and drought; the Pacific Northwest and the Rockies by 175 percent.[13] By 2018, the biggest fires in California’s history raged across the country. “In California, 15 of the 20 largest fires in state history have burned since 2000.”[14]

            It is no surprise that the most damaging fires are on the West Coast where droughts and heat are pounding the land. The East Coast has the least amount of fire damage, a fact that is correlated to the projection of increasing the intensity of Atlantic hurricanes with more Category 4s and 5s, as well as greater rainfall rates in hurricanes. So the West will be hotter and dryer, especially in spring and summer (augmenting fires), while the East will be warmer and wetter, especially in fall, winter, and spring (suppressing fires).[15]

            Tom Swetnam, professor at the University of Arizona, is a world expert on tree rings and has samples going back 3,000 years. He concludes that over the last hundred years the climate impact on forests has been hotter and dryer increasing the number of fires, the length of fire seasons, and the intensity of fires making them six times more destructive as they cover six times more area than they did between 1970 to 1986. Forest fires have become so hot, that they “burn through the soil, so that the soil erodes, and it can take trees up to a thousand years to grow back.”[16] Because of global warming, the wildfire season is now averaging 78 days longer than it did just 30 years ago.[17]

            Due to the warming climate, the bark beetle has doubled its reproductive cycle and expanded its territory from lower California, across the Rockies, far into Canada and Alaska unleashing a plague that has killed 45 million acres of pines devastating entire forests into a tinder box of dead trees just waiting for one match or one lightning strike.[18] Diana Six, professor of Forest Entomology and Pathology at the University of Montana, who has been studying this pest for sixteen years, stated, “The death of all the trees from beetles and fires is setting off a vicious cycle. All the carbon released by the dead trees will speed up the rate of climate change which will only lead to higher temperature, more beetles, and more fires.”[19] This is a positive feedback loop. A few decades ago, Canada and Alaska were cold enough to kill the beetles and keep their numbers small allowing forests to survive. Today, the beetles are so comfortable with the rising temperatures that they have reached plague-of-locust proportions, killing tens of millions of acres of forests, preparing them for the fire, and moving on. “All the trees  . . . shall the (insects) consume.”[20]

            During the 2003 European heat wave, 71,000 people died from the heat while goliath forest fires scorched dry terrain equal to the size of Luxembourg, consuming orchards, houses, and eighteen lives. Such wildfires will become increasingly common in Spain, southern France, Turkey, and the Balkans, as the subtropical arid belt moves northward spreading Sahara-like weather into southern Europe.

            Warming climate will turn extensive boreal forests (found in a continuous belt across northern Alaska, Canada, and Eurasia) into a carbon-and-methane time bomb.[21] The boreal area is also called the taiga, a Russian word for a swampy, damp forest. The boreal forest is the largest forest ecosystem on the planet comprising 11 percent of earth’s terrestrial surface. Unlike most temperate and tropical forests where carbon is predominantly stored in living trees, 80 percent of the carbon in boreal forests is in the soil.[22] About 231 billion metric tons of carbon is stored in boreal soils, while 58 billion tons of carbon is stored in live vegetation.[23] The world’s boreal forests–plants and soils–contain more than one-third of the planet’s terrestrial stores of carbon, which if released would have a disastrous effect pushing the climate past tipping points into run away global warming.[24]

            CBS News reported on the morning of June 21, 2020 that the hottest temperature ever has been recorded for the Arctic at the town of Verkhoyansk (67.5°) at 100.7°F, which is 32 degrees above normal and almost unheard of. Usually this town is one of the coldest spots on Earth. As a result of hot-dry conditions, numerous fires rage nearby and smoke is visible for thousands of miles on Satellite images. Parts of Siberia have been toasting for weeks remarkably above normal since January. Above the Arctic Circle, Khatanga hit 78°F (46 degrees above normal and shattered the previous record by an astounding 22 degrees). The average heat across Russia from January to May 2020 is so shocking because these temperatures were projected for 2100. Last summer, Markusvinsa in Sweden in the Arctic Circle hit 94.6°F. With the warming and drying, unprecedented Arctic fires made summer 2019 the very worst fire season on record.[25]  Imagine how those temperatures are thawing the “perma”frost and releasing the methane all across northern Russia!

            In 2016, there were over 30,000 fires burning 3 million acres in the U.S. In 2015, wildfires burned more than 10 million acres. “Researchers with the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimate that by 2050, the total amount of acreage burned annually will be at least twice as high as it is today” due to global warming.[26] During the same time, Canada was evacuating 88,000 people. (“One of the largest evacuations in North America,” said Bill Stewart, the co-director of the University of California’s Center for Fire Research at UC Berkeley). They lost 1,600 structures in the Fort McMurray fires that burned over 1,000 sq. km. (about 386 sq. mi.).

            In the summer of 2019, Europe suffered another scorching heat wave that headed into Greenland melting the top of the mile-deep ice sheet (which is usually the coldest place and never melts). At the same time in northern Russia and Siberia, more than 100 “intense and long-lived wildfires” broke records for over two months cloaking more than 4.5 million sq. km. (almost 2 million sq. mi. remembering that the U.S. is 3.5 million sq. mi.) in smoke visible from space. Satellite photos over the North Pole showed over half the land mass in flames from boreal and Arctic wildfires breaking records in scale and duration. Ice in the Arctic and Greenland is melting at record-breaking levels.[27] In the summer of 2019, 700,000 acres burned in Canada, and 230 fires raged across Alaska pouring carbon dioxide (CO2), and even worse methane (CH4), into the skies.

            In 2020, California and Oregon broke all records for wildfire destruction and smoke pollution turning skies a dark orange. In Oregon on September 11th, hundreds of thousands were evacuating on top of a half million (more than 10% of the 4.2 million people in the state) because of uncontrolled wildfires. Gov. Kate Brown said that over 900,000 acres (larger than Rhode Island) had burned in the last 3 days. That was almost double the land burned in a typical year. [31]

            The orange darkened skies blotting out the sun are blanketing the state with air pollution so bad that it threatens the health of everyone. “What’s notable is that it’s everywhere,” said Anthony Wexler, director of the Air Quality Research Center at UC David. “So no matter which way the wind blows you’re getting hit by smoke and ash. It’s pretty brutal.” The health effect of wildfire smoke over the state include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, asthma attacks, and increase risk of heart attacks and stroke. Wildfire smoke increases the smog-forming pollutants in the air. The levels are in the danger zone. [34]

            At the same time in 2020, California began September having already broken previous records with 3 million acres of scorched earth. Fires have become so numerous and vast that they actually join up in what is referred to as “complexes”–“the scope of which the state has never seen.” Last Thursday (9/10/20), the August complex, which was produced by 37 fires merging in and around Tehama County, became the largest recorded in California at 471,000 acres. [32] Daniel Berlant, an assistant deputy director at Cal Fire, stated, “We are hitting the record books in ways that we never would have imagined, and definitely not records that we like breaking.” California’s wildfires are growing bigger and moving faster leaving less time for warnings and evacuations. “We have seen multiple fires expand by tens of thousands of acres in a matter of hours, and 30 years or more ago that just wasn’t fire behavior that we saw,” said Jacob Bendix, a professor of geography and the environment with expertise in wildfires at Syracuse University. Ever warming temperatures and years of drought related to global warming are prime factors for this trend. US Forest Service forester Steve Lohr observed, “When you have a fire run 15 miles in one day, in one afternoon, there’s no model that can predict that. the fires are behaving in such a way that we’ve not seen.” [33]

            There is no doubt in any scientist’s mind that increasing trend in fire days, fire zones consumed, and intensity of fires is the product of global warming. Noah Diffenbaugh, a climate scientist professor of Earth System Science at Standfor University has documented just how much worse California’s fires have become as the planet has warmed. His studies showed, “The frequency of extreme wildfire weather during the autumn season in California has doubled in the last four decades.” Now, the fire season is essentially year-round. [35]

            Earth has always had fires, but those humanity saw were smaller, cooler, less frequent, less deadly. With rising global warming, the fires are hotter, longer, cover more area, destroy more forests, kill too many people, and decrease a major carbon sink (a sink absorbs CO2 out of the air) while becoming a carbon and methane source. The first trumpet sounded and “a third of the earth was burned up.”[28]

            The first bowl was poured and “a loathsome and malignant sore” appeared on the people who worshipped the beast of Revelation.[29] The beast has not yet appeared, neither has this disease. However, as previously noted with the pine park beetle and mosquitoes in Alaska, warming climate change does expand the territories of agents and vectors and the diseases they carry, including all tick-borne diseases (Lyme), all mosquito-borne diseases (malaria), and other protozoan diseases (dysenteric amoeba). In the U.S., I was rarely ill. When I moved to Africa near the equator (hot and humid), sicknesses rocketed in our family including frequent malaria and intestinal and skin parasites. As a family, we went from visiting the doctor once a year in the U.S. to every month or more in Africa. Everything from bacteria to worms grows better in warm, moist environments.

            Both the trumpet and the bowl are linked to the land. With warming weather, the land burns, crops and herds decrease the food supply, pests and parasites against crops and man increase . . . the human body weakens and is more susceptible to disease. However, how Revelation’s malignant sore disease is linked to both the land and the mark (666) is still a mystery.

            As NASA has said, “Something on earth is always burning. Satellite photos reveal the shocking extent.

            As Revelation says, “A third of the earth (will) burn.”

            Revelation is happening now.


               [1] https://www.nasa.gov/images/content/484444main_firemap_ or “NASA – Wildfires: A Symptom of Climate Change.”

                [2] Al Gore, The Future (New York: Random House, 2013) 337.

                [3] Years of Living Dangerously, “The Scariest Climate Change Facts,” p. 3. https://yearsoflivingdangerously.com/science/scary-facts. 

                [4] “Deforestation and Its Extreme Effect on Global Warming,” Scientific American, 2016. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/deforestation . . . . Between 2000 and 2009, 32 million acres of tropical rainforests were cut down each year.

                [5] Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/newsworld/what-you-should-know-about-the-fires-raging-in-the-amazon on August 22, 2019.  The article sites Reuter’s, The New York Times, and The Washington Post, NASA, INPE, Global Forest Watch in World Resources Institute, and Huff Post.

                [6] Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/tropical-forest-the-size-of-england-dstroyed-in-2018-report.                

                [7] Ibid.

                [8] Compiled from data from the U.S. National Interagency Fire Center, 2010; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report,  2005. Emmott, 164-165.

                [9] Documentary: “Years of Living Dangerously,” episode 2, “End of Woods.” Miniseries by Roaring Fork Film Production, created by Joel Back and David Gelber, 2014. 

                [10] U.S. Forest Service, “Fire,” www.fs.fed.us/managing-land/fire.

                [11] “List of California wildfires,” October 23, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_California)wildfires.

                [12] Ibid., comment stated by former governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, who oversaw many of the fires.

                [13] “Years of Living Dangerously,” episode 2, “End of Woods.” 

                [14] Tim Wallace, “Three of California’s Biggest Fires Ever Are Burning Right Now,” August 10, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/08/10/us/california-fires.html.

                [15] EPA, “Future of Climate Change,” https://www.epa.gov/climate-change-science/future-climate-change. The article is citing Jerry Melilo et al., Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, USGCRP, 2014. C.f. The U.S. National Climate Assessment, 2014. C.f. IPCC (2013), Climate Change 2013, The Physical Science Basis. From the Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 2013.

                [16] “Years of Living Dangerously,” episode 2, “End of Woods.” 

                [17] Years of Living Dangerously, “The Scariest Climate Change Facts,” p. 10. http://yearsoflivingdangerously.com/science/scary-facts. 

                [18] National Research Council of the National Academies, Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2013) 21.

                [19] “Years of Living Dangerously,” episode 2.

                [20] KJV, Deut 28:42. The specific insect mentioned in this verse is the whirring locust. NASB and ESV translate this a “cricket,” the KJB as “locust,” the NEV as “whirring locust,” the CJB as “bugs,” the GNV as “grasshopper,” the NJB and NLT as “insects.” Sometimes the Bible gives one common specific example to portray a general principle that applies across many examples. This is why some translations use more general terms that would be better understood across continents. USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), “Bark Beetles, 2014. www.fs.fed.us/research/invasive-species/insects/bark-beetle. The U.S. Forest Service (fs) cited “unprecedented bark beetle mortality (41.7 million acres across multiple ownerships) in 2011.” 800-832-1355.

                [21] borealforest.org. www.borealforest.org/index.php?category=world_boreal_forest. Lakehead University, Canada. 

                [22] Elizabeth Nelson, et al., Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, “Combating Climate Change Through Boreal Forest Conservation: Resistance, Adaptation, and Mitigation,” June 2007. www.greenpeace.org/canada/Global/canada/report/2008/4/combating-cc-boreal-forest . . . .

                [23] Earth Observatory, NASA, “How Boreal Fires Impact Global Climate,” earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BOREAFire/boreas_fire_4.php.

                [24] Andrew Freedman, “Arctic’s Boreal Forests Burning At ‘Unprecedented’ Rate,” July 22, 2013. www.climatecentral.org/news/arctics-boreal-forests-burning . . . .  

               [25] Jeff Berardeli, “Arctic records its hottest temperature ever,” CBS News. https://www.msn.com/en-us/weather/topstories/arctic-records-its-hottest-temperature-every/ Retrieved on June 21, 2020.

                [26] Andrew C. Revkin, “Burning Economic Issues Behind America’s Wildfire Problem,” August 1, 2016. Retrieved from http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/08/01.

                [27] Rafael Cereda. Retrieved from https://www.euronews.com/2019/07/26/if-you-re-worred-about-the-climate-in-Europe-spare-a thought-for-the-Arctic-circle-this-year.

                [28] Rev 8:7.

                [29] Rev 16:3.

                [30] NASA satellite photo of South American and African Fires. NASA satellite photo of Amazon Fire burning for weeks. NASA photo “Wildfire 1.” “Forest Fire, River, and Deer” by Wikilmages from Pixabay.com. “Bark Beetle Found in Ponderosa Pine” on Wikimedia Commons. “Bark Beetle – Destruction of Forest” by Akveniam on Wikimedia under Creative Commons CCO 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. “Trees are cut down in Drei Annen Hohn (Harz -Germany) because of destruction due to bark beetles.”

            [31] Gillian Flaccus and Andrew Selsky, the Associated Press, September 11, 2020; https://www.msn.com/en-us-news-us-evacuate-now-wildfires-grow-in-oregon-as-500k-flee/ 

            [32] Anita Chabria, Paige St. John, Luke Money, et al. for the Los Angeles Times at https://www.msn.com/en-us-weather-topstories/california-s-staggering-fire-toll-a-record-3-million-acres-and-it-s-still-early/

            [33] Megan Diskin for USA TODAY at https://www.msn.com-en-us-news-us-in-california-august-complex-fire-becomes-state-s-biggest-blaze-ever-at-a-whopping-471-000-acres/

            [34] Ibid.

            [35] Radio.com. Retrieved on Sept 11, 2020 at https://www.msn.com/en-us-weather-topstories/climate-change-is-worsening-california-s-wildfires/

            [36] Wikimedia Commons images of wildfires from various places.

             [37] Wikimedia Commons images of high smoke pollution from various places.

Categories
Second Trumpet and Bowl in Revelation

Chapter 10 – Oceans in Revelation and Science

Revelation says that a third–increasing to all–sea creatures in the oceans will die.


Vanishing Beauty [38]
Plagues of Jellyfish flourish due to killing off their predators (like sharks). Red Tide kills fish. Overfishing the Oceans by 2.5x is unsustainable. Beach Trash is a small sample from the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. 100 million sharks are killed a year harming marine ecosystems. River of Pollution flows into the ocean. Bleached Corals in dying reefs are caused by warming oceans. Light green water along the Namib Desert beach is a sulfur event killing millions of fish, so expansive it can be seen from space. Revelation says the oceans will die. Science says the oceans are dying. [39]

Revelation says eventually every living thing in the oceans will die. Science says there are 500 dead zones and by 2048 all marine fisheries will collapse. Both agree, oceans are dying.

The Second Trumpet

Rev 8:8-9         [Part A] The second angel sounded, and something like a great mountain burning with fire was thrown into the sea; [Part B] and a third of the sea became blood,  and a third of the creatures which were in the sea and had life, died; and a third of the ships were destroyed.

The Second Bowl

Rev 16:3          [Part A] The second angel poured out his bowl into the sea, and [Part B] it became blood like that of a dead man; and every living thing in the sea died.

Note: In Part A, the angel(s) is real, but the “mountain with fire” is metaphorical for great power executing judgment (fire) coming down from heaven. The pouring out of a “bowl” is metaphorical for a curse (something that tears down). These meanings are determined from word studies showing OT Hebraic usage. Part B is mostly literal, except the “blood” and its color can be literal, figurative, or both. It believe it is both.


The transition from the death of a third to every living creature in the oceans indicates a long-term process, not an acute catastrophe. God is merciful. He gives time and plenty of opportunity to repent and/or prepare, like He did in the days of Noah who took 100 years to build the ark.[1]

            “A third of the sea became blood” is a mixture of literal and figurative speech. The sea is real, but the blood symbolizes death. It may also indicate the color of the oceans due to massive algae or bacterial blooms. Literal death includes a third of the plankton, seaweed, corals, fish, and oceanic mammals knocking out part of the fishing industry (which along with increased intensity of hurricanes destroy a third of the ships), therefore, losing more of the life-support system for humankind. A billion people on earth depend on the oceans as their primary source of protein. However, if millions of tons of fish are harvested and/or masses of human corpses are thrown into the water from the great tribulation, there could be literal blood in the waters. The most likely is a combination.

Pollution Causing Dead Zones

            Scientific American reported toxic chemicals in oceans produced by another process dominating marine coastal regions around the globe:

            “Fertilizer contains large amounts of nitrogen, and it runs off of agricultural fields in water and into rivers, and eventually into oceans. This fertilizer runoff, instead of contributing to more corn or wheat, feeds massive algae blooms in the coastal oceans. This algae, in turn, dies and sinks to the bottom where it is consumed by microbes, which                 consume oxygen in the process. More algae means more oxygen-burning, and thereby less oxygen in the water, resulting in a massive flight by those fish, crustaceans and other ocean-dwellers able to relocate as well as the mass death of immobile creatures, such as clams or other bottom-dwellers. And that’s when the microbes that thrive in oxygen-free environments take over, forming vast bacterial mats that produce hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas.”[2]

            Sometimes the waters turn toxic so fast that fish cannot flee resulting in millions of dead fish washed up on the beaches. On the Atlantic coast of southern Africa in Namibia, the ocean water periodically turns a stinky yellow. Forty years ago, Namibia’s fishing grounds were among the richest in the world with an annual catch of 10 million tons of sardines (about 100 billion fish) due to cold, nutrient-rich, deep waters and currents. After decades of foreign fleets overfishing these stocks, they were nearly wiped out by the 1970s; less than one tenth remains today with no recovery in sight. When abundant, the fish ate copious amounts of phytoplankton in the region, which kept the system balanced. When the fish plummeted, the phytoplankton blooms exploded, died, sank to the bottom by tons, decayed, and through bacterial decomposition produced sedimentary layers saturated with two gases: hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4). (H2S levels of 100 ppm and higher can be lethal.) This process has cycled over decades. When a storm hits the area, the low pressure in the atmosphere causes low pressure in the ocean to release copious methane bubbles to the surface carrying with them the hydrogen sulfide that mixes with water to form sulfur. This is called a sulfur event. The sulfur permeates the water turning the ocean from blue to yellow expelling a poisonous stench like rotten eggs into the atmosphere. The discoloration of the ocean can be monitored by satellites and covers thousands of square miles. Coastal towns stink. Beaches are blanketed with millions of dead fish that were paralyzed by the hydrogen sulfide and suffocated. This periodic yellow ocean flooding the beaches with dead fish has been recorded for over eighty years. Each eruption releases enough methane to cover the state of New Jersey putting an enormous amount of a very potent greenhouse gas, methane, into the atmosphere.[3] God-created nature had a clean, life-sustaining balance. Man without limits upset that balance, and it turned dirty and deadly.

            The National Academy of Sciences estimates that 14 billion pounds of garbage are dumped into the ocean every year from boats and ships alone.[4] Globally, “over 30 billion tons of urban sewage [is] discharged into lakes, rivers and oceans each year.”[5] Remember, many rivers end in the ocean. The U.S. Navy finally admitted that it poured overboard 64 million pounds of nerve and mustard agents into the sea, along with 400,000 chemical-filled bombs, land mines, and rockets, and more than 500 tons of radioactive waste.[6] The 2011 tsunami forced a nuclear crisis in Japan. By April, the Japanese officials allowed owners of the broken Fukushima nuclear power plant to empty tanks holding 10,000 tons of radioactive water into the Pacific Ocean.[7]

            “Each day, the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers dump no less than 2.3 billion pieces of plastic into the ocean totaling roughly thirty tons.”[8] A federally funded study published in Marine Pollution Bulletin estimates that 639,000 plastic containers are dropped into the oceans daily from merchant ships.[9] Billions of tons of plastic debris clog the central Pacific Ocean in the northern hemisphere like an ever-flushing toilet with its clockwise currents, poisoning fish and birds. The technical name is the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch.”[10] A list of 253 marine species are confirmed victims of garbage pollution by a staff biologist with the Marine Mammal Commission. Thousands of Laysan albatross chicks are dying every year on Midway Island leaving behind bony corpses bulging from plastics and other nonbiodegradable, manmade objects that impacted their intestines causing them to starve to death.[11] Over 100,000 sea mammals, sea birds and various types of fishes die each year because of plastic wastes in the oceans.[12] 

            MDs counsel all pregnant women to restrict their fish intake due to mercury pollution. Ten percent of all dredging from rivers and harbors dumped into the ocean is polluted with heavy metals like mercury, cadmium, and chromium that are toxic to marine organisms and end up in our seafood.[13] Researchers from Nature reported that mercury levels in the upper ocean have tripled since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.[14] Heavy metals in general can cause nasty diseases like Minimata (mercury poisoning: neurological damage affecting hands, feet, muscles, vision, hearing, speech, leading to insanity and paralysis and mimicking MS) and itai itai (cadmium poisoning: “it hurts-it hurts disease” damaging spine, joints, bones, and kidneys). India uses heavy metals in fungicides. Pulp mills, industrial and domestic sewage wastes using mercury are dumped into the rivers and oceans. Fish can absorb heavy metals directly from the water or through the food chain. Fish and shellfish concentrate metals in their tissues to much higher levels as they continually eat organisms with trace metals in their tissues. Metals have a long “residence time” exerting their toxic effect over an extended time. They increase toxicity as water temperature rises. All of these metals are toxic even at low levels, readily absorbed by marine organisms, and inhibit many biochemical functions in animals that consume them.[15] In March 2001, 2,265 victims of Minimata (1,784 of whom had died) were recognized by Japan so by 2004 the Chisso Corporation paid out $86 million in compensation to over 10,000 victims. By March 29, 2010 another settlement was reached.[16] Ocean currents circulate these poisons around the world.

            Pollution from Midwestern farms has flowed down the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico where it has killed virtually all fish and shrimp in an anoxic “dead zone” south of New Orleans. As of 2014, the Gulf of Mexico’s Dead Zone stretches over 5,052 square miles (the size of Connecticut) of low-oxygen water off much of Louisiana’s coast and part of Texas.[17] Its waters are poisoned with a combination of fertilizer, sewage, and industrial run-offs. These pollutants feed large blooms of algae that ultimately deplete the oxygen in the water killing off the fish. (However, jellyfish thrive.)

            Due to sewage, overfishing, and agricultural runoff, 70% of the world’s reefs are now either dead or dying.[18] “Eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from the land.”[19] It includes runoff from many nonpoint sources such as septic tanks, motor vehicles, boats, farms, ranches, and cities. The rest comes from point sources such as cities dumping sewage, toxic wastes, heavy metals, hazardous chemicals, agricultural and industrial wastes, and every kind of imaginable garbage dumped into rivers that end in the ocean or dumped directly into the ocean. Examples of dead zones are found in Chesapeake Bay, San Francisco Bay, the Baltic Sea, Scandinavia’s Kattegat Strait, the Black Sea, the Adriatic Sea, off the coasts of South America, China, Japan, southeast Australia, in the Gulf of Mexico, and many points on the east and west coasts of the U.S.[20]

“A third of the creatures which were in the sea and had life died, ” (Revelation 8:9). [40]

            In 1950, there were 45 dead zones in the oceans around the world; zones so devoid of oxygen or so toxic that fish could not survive. Research in 2008 counted 405 dead zones in oceans around the world and this number is growing.[21] As of 2018, Britain’s top newspaper, The Guardian, reported “at least 500 dead zones have now been reported near coasts” around the world.[22] Professor Robert Diaz at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science emphasizes not only “the increasing expansion of coastal dead zones [but the] decline in open ocean oxygen” that will lead to “severe and persistent mortality of fisheries.”[23]

            The oceans’ fisheries (large populations of different species) are dying from rising temperatures, anoxia, pollution, overfishing, and plagues due to tropic cascades (i.e. kill off predators, like the harvest of 274,000 sharks every day, and a plague of jellyfish destroys fisheries).

Overfishing

            “In 2003, a scientific report estimated that industrial fishing had reduced the number of large ocean fish to just 10 percent of their preindustrial population.”[24] Ninety percent of the large fish in the oceans are gone. Regarding all the fish, large and small in the oceans: 53% of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited, 32% are overexploited or depleted, the top ten marine fisheries (30% of the fish) are fully or overexploited.[25] “The global fishing fleet is 2.5 times larger than what the oceans can sustainably support–meaning that humans take far more fish from the ocean than can be replaced naturally.”[26] “Led by the sushi market in Japan, the global demand for succulent tuna meat has driven stocks of the once ubiquitous species to the brink of collapse. Fisheries in the Mediterranean . . . are in particular peril, with some studies showing highly prized blue fin tuna near extinction there.”[27] The Atlantic cod and California’s sardines were harvested to the brink of extinction by the mid-1900s. The Peruvian anchovy fisheries crashed in the 1970s. The cod fishery off Newfoundland collapsed in the 1990s. The sole fisheries in the Irish Sea and English Channel are close to shutting down. Pacific herring is down 71%, Atlantic herring down 63%. By 1989, 90 million tonnes per year of catch were being taken from the oceans crossing a peak of production, which has been level since the 1990s. “Unless the current situation improves, stocks of all species currently fished for food are predicted to collapse by 2048.”[28] The World Health Organization states that one billion people on the planet depend on fish as their primary protein source.

            Across the world, scientists have noted that the removal of one component from any oceanic system can have a disruptive domino-effect on other components; they call this trophic cascades.[29] A hundred million sharks are killed each year, 700,000 tons of shark are brought to land each year. That is about 274,000 sharks killed every day. Shark fin soup is big in Asia. Shark cartilage is sold in my local vitamin store. As this predator decreased, their prey–cow-nosed rays–increased and totally consumed their food source, scallops, thus wiping out the scallop fishery on the East Coast of the United States.[30]

Oceanic Plagues

            A plague of jellyfish has hit the world’s oceans. Scientist Dr. Lisa-Ann Gershwin reported for CNN that popular beach resorts around the world are seeing huge increases in jellyfish bloom, a result of overfishing and warming water temperatures.[31] The numbers in the French and Spanish Riviera, Chesapeake Bay, the Great Barrier Reef, Hawaii . . . are reaching plague proportions. In Hawaii, up to a thousand people in one day have been stung. It has not been uncommon in recent years for a half a million people to be stung during an outbreak.

            There are more than 2,000 species of jellyfish and most have harmless stings, some cause excruciating pain, but others–such as several species of the box jellyfish–have killed many people in Australia, Japan, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. Among them are the sea wasp and the northern Australian box jellyfish, the world’s most venomous animals with tentacles up to three meters (almost ten feet) long. Size does not prevent the Irukandji, which is small enough to fill a thimble, from being equally as poisonous. Just the slightest brush and the pain in the human body shoots to unimaginable heights, breathing is strangled, limbs are paralyzed, and vomiting and blood pressure skyrocket, terminating in death. “Jellyfish occur in all marine waters from pole to pole and at all depths,” says Gershwin. “The life threatening ones are found from 40 degrees north to 40 degrees south latitude.” Major predators of jellyfish are sharks, tunas, swordfish, and some species of salmon–the very fish that humankind is decimating with overfishing. Sea turtles like to eat jellyfish, but many turtles are dying from eating floating plastic bags that they mistake for jellies.

            What do jellyfish eat? Some eat fish, but most devour prodigious quantities of phytoplankton.[32] (Phytoplankton is a carbon sink as well as a major part of the food web for larger fish.) The Irish Times reported that jellyfish killed thousands of salmon. These exploding gelatinous plankton blooms of jellyfish have been harming other fisheries in the Mediterranean.[33] A new study from researchers at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) reports that jellyfish drastically alter marine food webs. VIMS scientist Rob Condon et al. said, “Jellyfish are voracious predators. They affect food webs by devouring plankton that would otherwise be eaten by fish, and converting that food energy into gelatinous biomass. This restricts the transfer of energy up the food chain, because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators.” The carbon in the phytoplankton is no longer available for fish, but is given off by the jellyfish as mucus (slime) and excretion, which are consumed by bacteria that rapidly metabolize it into carbon dioxide (CO2). Whereas phytoplankton is a carbon sink and gives off oxygen, jellyfish blooms and their bacteria are a carbon source increasing the CO2 in the water (thus, increasing ocean acidification) and in the atmosphere, while decreasing the nutrients and oxygen available for fish and shellfish that humans eat. “A third of the creatures which were in the sea and had life, died.”[34] Tomorrow, when the second bowl pours out, everything in the sea will die.

The Death of Every Living Thing in the Oceans

            The Ocean Conveyor Belt/thermohaline circulation/Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is constantly moving a global system of deep-ocean currents–a circulation driven by temperature and salinity. It drives global ocean currents by the cooling and sinking of water at high latitudes off the coast of Greenland and Norway where freezing Arctic air lowers the water’s temperature and forces fresh water out of sea ice leaving behind heavy, salty water that quickly plummets to the bottom of the ocean pushing currents southward then around the globe; currents that carry nutrients, oxygen, and distribute energy/heat. It takes a thousand years to circulate the water throughout all the oceans.

            With global warming, melting glaciers are pouring more fresh water into the ocean, and ocean temperatures are rising. Eventually, these conditions will stop the AMOC.[35] The oceans will become stagnant, anoxic (without oxygen), and toxic from the blood of dead fish and decaying organisms. Bacteria like Chromatiaceae thrive on such conditions and turn the water red. Algae blooms like Karenia brevis, the cause of “red tide,” prefers anoxic conditions coloring the water a deep crimson: “It became blood like that of a dead man; and every living thing in the sea died.”[36] Red tide attacks the nervous systems of fish, birds, and marine mammals killing off what few are left from overfishing. Once again, the lack of oxygen in oceans is associated with death.

             Coral reefs will eventually be a memory. In warmer, acidified, polluted, plasticized, and sometimes fiery waters, even the phytoplankton and algae struggle to survive. The exceptions that thrive are toxic red tides of algae or red waters of bacterial toxins. Phytoplankton used to be the world’s major carbon sink. Soon the ocean will be one more carbon source, and the global temperature will keep on rising. The global marine biome will be a system in collapse. Revelation’s prophecy will come to pass: “Every living thing in the sea died.”

Summary

            Five hundred dead zones–and increasing–in the oceans today are shutting down marine biomes from warming temperatures, anoxia, acidification, pollution, overfishing, and the disruption of marine food webs causing plagues spiraling in vicious cycles.

             Revelation’s oceanic prophecies–the death of our oceans–are happening before our eyes and on a collision course with calamity. Most of us in America sigh at the disturbing rise in prices of fish, then return to our comfort bubbles. But when this planet’s marine and terrestrial ecosystems (not to mention pandemics like covid-19 taxing all resources) hit critical thresholds crashing economies, job markets, food supplies, medical facilities, and other life resources, there will be no more bubbles. One man will unite us. God will destroy us.[37] We will be on a collision course for global collapse.

             Like Noah, we must be ready!


                [1] Matt 24:37, “The coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah.”

                [2] Davod Biello, “Oceanic Dead Zones Continue to Spread,” August 15, 2008. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/oceanic . . . . Biello reported 405 dead zones in 2008.

                [3] National Geographic, DVD, “Strange Days on Planet Earth,” episode 5, “Dangerous Catch.” The scientists who discovered this phenomena were Bronwen Curry in the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources in Swakopmund, Namibia; Scarla Weeks from the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia; and Andrew Bakun from PEW Institute for Ocean Science in Miami, USA. c.f. http://www.pbs.org/strangedays/episodes/dangerouscatch/expers/stench.html.

                [4] Ibid., 70.

                [5] http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/various-water-pollution-facts.php. “40 Facts About Water Pollution,” Conserve Energy Future. c.f. on the same site: various-global-warming-facts.

                [6] Moore, 70-71.

                [7] http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2011/0404/Why-is-Japan-dumping-radioactive-water-into-the-ocean?  c.f. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/03/12/japan-may-soon-dump-hundreds-of-thousands-of-tons-of-radioactive-water-into-the-ocean. c.f. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-05-23/japan-begins-puposely-dumping-100s-of-tons-of-radioactive-water-from-Fukushima-into-the-pacific.

                [8] Charles Moore, Plastic Ocean (New York: Avery, the Penguin Group, 2012) 74.

                [9] Moore, 70-71.

                [10] This term was coined by Capt. Charles Moore of the Algalita Marine Research Foundation whose journeys across the ocean uncovered an endless floating waste of plastic trash.

                [11] Ibid., 122-123.

                [12] Conserve Energy Future.

                [13] http://marinebio.org/oceans/ocean-dumping.

                [14] C. H. Lamborg et al. “A global ocean inventory of anthropogenic mercury based on water column measurements,” Nature  (Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2014) 65-68. c.f.  Anne Casselman, “Humans have tripled mercury levels in upper ocean,” Nature, August 6, 2014. http://www.nature.com/news/humans-have-tripled-mercury-levels-in-upper-ocean.

                [15] http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/8321/1/SCIENCE­_REPORTER_VOL_20(3)_158-160.pdf. March 1983.

                [16] Official government figure as of March 2001 found in  Minamata Disease: The History and Measures, ch. 2.  c.f.  Jane Hightower, Diagnosis Mercury: Money, Politics and Poison, (Island Press, 2008) 77. c.f. “Agreement reached to settle Minamata suit,” Asahi Shimbun news, March 2010. c.f. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamata­_disease.

                [17] Melodi Smith and Jason Hanna, CNN, “Gulf of Mexico ‘dead zone’ is the size of Connecticut.” August 7, 2014. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/05/tech/gulf-of-mexico-dead-zone. Reporting from research by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NOAA estimates that the annual cost of algae blooms to U.S. seafood and tourism is more than $82 million. c.f. wikipedia, “Dead Zone (ecology).

                [18] Lynas, 60.

                [19] http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/pollution.html. “What is the biggest source of pollution in the ocean?” c.f. http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Po-Re/Pollution-of-the-Ocean-by Sewage-Nutrients-and-Chemicals.

                [20] http://www.nbcnews.com/id/4624359/ns/us_news-environment/t/dead-zones-counted.

                [21] http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-dead-zones. “What Causes Ocean “Dead Zones?” September 25, 2012.

                [22] Damian Carrington, “Oceans suffocating as huge dead zones quadruple since 1950, scientists warn,” January  4, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.the guardian.com/environment/2018/jan/04/oceans-suffocating

                [23] Ibid.

                [24] Ibid.

                [25] World Wildlife Federation (WWF Global), “Unsustainable fishing.” http://wwf.panda.org/about_out_eart/blue_planet/problems/problems_fishing.

                [26] World Wildlife Federation, “Overfishing-the plundering of our oceans.” http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/.

                [27] http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-overfishing.

                [28] B. Worm et. al., (2006), “Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services.” Science, 314:787.

                [29] Trophic has to do with nutrition/food.

                [30] http://www.sharkproject.org/haiothek/index_e.php?site=gefahr_10. citing statistics from Greenpeace and WWF. The international shark protection initiative SHARKPROJECT estimates 20 million sharks per year are killed.

                [31] http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/04/travel/jellyfish-taking-over-oceans, c.f. Lisa-Ann Gershwin, Stung! On Jellyfish Blooms and the Future of the Ocean.

                [32] http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=119772. Press Release 11-115; “Jellyfish Blooms Transfer Food Energy from Fish to Bacteria.” Jan 2, 2015.  Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

                [33] Fernando Borea, “Review of Jellyfish Blooms in the Mediterranean and Black Sea,” a report for the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean and the United Nations.

                [34] Rev 8:9. This is the second trumpet. By the second bowl, “everything in the sea died” (Rev 16:3).

                [35] “The Global Conveyor Belt,” NOAA Ocean Service Education. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/currents/06conveyor3.html. Scientists hypothesize that the AMOC  might stop but express doubt. National Research Council, Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 2013) 39-44. However, Revelation says that everything in the sea will die, so shutting down AMOC is the number one suspect for such a monumental change.

                [36] Rev 16:3, “The second angel poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood like that of a dead man; and every living thing in the sea died.” The blood of a living person is oxygenated so it is bright red in the arteries and darker red in the veins with less oxygen. The blood of a dead person is anoxic, thus deep, dark red. It clots and becomes thick and sludgy with a putrid odor peculiar to decomposing corpses, in this case, from the rotting bodies of all the dead sea creatures in the sea.  ESV, “The fish in the Nile died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water from the Nile. There was blood throughout all the land of Egypt” (Exod 7:21). c.f. Margaret Sturgill Jeys, Revelation for the Common Man, Book 1,  (Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2010) 149.

                [37] Rev 11:18, God will “destroy those who destroy the earth.”

                [38] “Bora Bora” by Maria Michelle on Pixabay.com.

                [39] “White Jellyfishes” by Bugra Dogan from Pexels.com. “Red Tide” Source: http://www.8.nos.noaa.gov/coris_glossary/index.aspx? September 4, 2019. Author: NOAA, U.S. government. Found on Wikimedia: jellyfish. “Red Tide” by NOAA, U.S. Government on June 22, 2009. http://www8.nos.noaa.gov/coris_glossary/index.aspx? Found on Wikimedia: red tide. “Trawler’s Overfishing Cod.” “A trawler reeling in a fishing net containing hundreds of thousands of codfish; and example of overfishing. Author: “own work” on Wikimedia: overfishing. Creative Commons Attribution (CCA)-Share Alike 4.0 International license. “Beach Trash from Great Pacific Garbage Patch” by Justin Dolske on Wikimedia: Pacific garbage patch, December 10, 2016. “The Great Pacific garbage patch causes vast quantities of trash to wash ashore at the south end of Hawaii. CCA-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license. “Great White Shark” by Elias Levy, August 13, 2014. CCA 2.0 Generic license on Wikimedia: Great White shark. “Coastal Pollution” by Thakur Dalip Singh on September 20, 2010. “An aerial view releasing toxic chemical in ocean city near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. CCA-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license on Wikimedia: ocean pollution. “Bleached Branching Coral” (Acropora sp.) at Heron Island Great Barrier Reef by J. Roff on January 21, 2005. CCA-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. on Wikimedia: bleached coral. “Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions Off of Africa,” by NASA Earth Observatory using Terra Satellite (443 miles above earth), U.S. Government. “The milky-green colors in the ocean along Namibia’s coast indicate high concentrations of sulfur and low concentrations of oxygen” killing thousands of fish that wash upon the beaches.

               [40] “Fish Kill Pollution” author is the United States Fish and Wildlife Service which has released this image into the public domain. Found on Wikimedia Commons.