First, I would like to thank friends on Facebook for the healthy discussion of these great topics. Since Facebook does not give much space, I suggest we continue our discussion on this website. The form will be brief. To cover the main components of evolution and creation in only five pages is succinct.
It is easy to see such topics in black and white—all false or all true—especially when our circle of people does so. However, we have a higher calling: to seek truth.
How do we know the truth? Please see Chapter 3 on this website entitled “Truth Reveals Reality.” In that chapter, 5 basic laws for discerning truth are discussed in depth. These laws are so powerful that every just judicial system throughout history must use them to lay a foundation of truth, as well as, all science, technology, economy, theology, medicine . . . every discipline that must interface with reality for success must have these laws in the foundation of their functioning. Conversely, every system (Nazism, Islam, JWs, etc.) that must keep its people in the darkness of falsehood must break one, and usually all, of these laws on a consistent basis.
In a nutshell, these laws are (1) thorough investigation of the facts, evidence, and proofs; (2) multiple eyewitnesses (scientific discovery requires multiple experiments by experts before any hypothesis is considered true); (3) eyewitnesses of good character such as people who were there or experts in their fields; witnesses who do not lie and their testimonies corroborate each other’s without collaboration (getting together to falsify a story); (4) listen to both sides (in a courtroom, or in science one must investigate the major hypothesizes or opposing theories); (5) the decision-maker must be pure (such as a judge, a scientist, or us–we must seek truth above all else and reject bribery, prejudice, bias, hearsay, conjecture, speculation, traditions, old habits, unsubstantiated assumptions, coercion, pride, . . . anything that would suppress the truth).
Truth is defined as the clear and accurate mirrored reflection of reality. I once asked a five-year-old boy this question, What is truth? He said, “Truth is what really happened.” Truth reveals reality. A child can understand truth.
The degree of truth we can discover is based on the quality and quantity of application of the laws of truth. By holding an in-house court, I can discover all the facts I need to know about which child stole the cookie. However, the amount of truth we know about the vastly complex subject of black holes is still small. We simply do not have all the facts.
The laws of truth were first written down 3,400 years ago by Moses in the Bible. These are God’s laws that he gave us to discover the truth not only about this universe, but about him. To discover and confirm the truth on any subject in this universe, whether one believes in God or not, we must go through his laws to know what is happening in reality.
It is easy to see a subject as complex as evolution in black or white. I heard a pastor declare it was all false. I heard a science professor declare it was all true. Neither applied the laws of truth. They simply followed and proclaimed what they had been taught by other authority figures in their circles.
First, what is the truth about evolution? Second, does it disprove or prove the existence of a Creator (God)?
Evolution is a system of parts. Let us look at six (6) of the most major parts to determine its truth or falsity. (I will go from the least to the most important relevant to our two questions.)
The fact that mutations occur has been proven by scientists across nations many times over. However, 99.9% of mutations are lethal. The .09% that are not lethal are detrimental. Our daughter has a genetic mutation in her chromosomes that has left her with an I.Q. of 36. It is the .01% of mutations that can be beneficial to the organism. When a pathological virus mutates, it enhances its chances of survival by avoiding antibodies that would attack it. This is a small mutation in a small organism, or as Darwin would say, only one small step. There are no X-Men. There is no evidence of giant leaps—multiple mutations all at once–making numerous changes in an organism. Genetics involving gene flow, genetic drift, recombination, etc. occur.
Verdict: Mutations are true.
(2) Natural Selection
Traits that promote the survival and reproduction of a species become more common in generations of a population. In London before the introduction of smoke stacks for factories, the white moth was numerous, whereas the black moth was rare. The walls on houses were white. Thus, white moths were camouflaged from birds. When smoke blackened the walls, white moths almost disappeared, and black moths became numerous. Birds quickly saw white wings against black walls and ate them. Thousands of such scientific investigations have proven the process of natural selection across some plant and animal forms. (It does not take into consideration intelligence, where the weak survive because of hospitals and medicine.)
Verdict: Natural selection is basically true.
(3) Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
This is the observation that the development of the embryo of an animal from fertilization to birth (“ontogeny” means “coming into being”) goes through stages that represent successive evolution of species across history (“phylogeny” is the history of species on a family tree).
Evolution says that living organisms started with one cell. The next stage was multi-celled ball . . . a multi-celled simple organism (like a hydra) . . . added a tail (pollywogs) . . . added arms (frog) . . . etc. The human embryo to fetus follows a similar pattern: one cell in the womb, multi-celled blastula, pollywog-like form with a tail, added arms, etc.
This pattern between simple life to more complex life is vaguely mirrored in the development of the human (or other animal) embryo. It is observable. Therefore, according to the laws of truth, it is real—the reflection of patterns in the growth of one human embryo to fetus vaguely reflecting other species from a protozoa to a primate is empirically proven.
However, here is the trick: When does observation stop and conjecture start? It is one thing to observe what happens. This is fact. It is another thing to declare why it happens. This is conjecture—saying that chance, that time, that chaos produced both the complex hierarchy of living things as well as the development of the human embryo into a fetus is unproven theory.
At this point, we know what happens. We do not know why or how it happens.
Verdict: Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny is partially true (what we see) but unproven (why it happens).
(4) Progression of Evolution through One Small Step at a Time
In his classic book, Origin of the Species, Darwin stated the following:
“If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modification, my theory would absolutely break down.“
Darwin, Charles (1872), Origin of Species, 6th ed. (New York: New York University Press, 1988) p. 154
Before I became a Christian, I was studying biology (including chemistry and physics) at UCD. Having heard a thorough presentation of evolution, I wondered if it was true. What would be the first step for one of the simplest living things—a bacterium—to start living and be able to reproduce? (Evolutionary theory says that organic chemicals were in a pool, struck by lightning, and turned into a living organism.) How simple was the first bacterium? It had to contain a DNA strand made up of hundreds of thousands of molecules in exactly the right order for the organism to live (take in nutrients, grow, excrete, adjust to its environment) and to replicate itself. As an agnostic studying science, I concluded, “This is impossible.” There is a vast complexity of hundreds of thousands of parts that have to come together in perfect order in the perfect environment even for the simplest of organism to survive. That contradicts Darwin’s theory requiring “slight modifications” one at a time over millions of years. Bacteria cannot survive without their complex cell membrane and cannot multiply without the vastly complex DNA. Darwin’s theory has broken down.
Darwin lived between 1809 and 1882. Watson and Crick received the Nobel Prize for uncovering the structure and components of DNA in 1962. Darwin never understood the extreme complexity and precision of interrelating parts required for even the simplest, much advanced organisms, to live. The simplest procaryotic cell needs a cell wall for shape encasing cystoplasm with water, enzymes, nutrients for digestion, the ability to excrete wastes, ribosomes, chromosmes, and plasmids. If it doesn’t have the wall, it doesn’t hold together. If it can’t digest food, it has no energy. If it can’t excrete wastes, the plasma becomes toxic. Without DNA, it can’t replicate. . . . DNA strands do not just pop into existence when amino acids are struck with electricity–as many scientific experiments have proven. (3)
One strike of lightning hitting one pool of chemicals and producing a highly complex organism such as a bacterium was just like dropping a bomb on a big junk yard and producing a Boeing 707. Scientific facts (the complexity of one cell) and scientific theory (a lightning bolt hitting chemicals) did not add up. It defied Darwin’s theory insisting on “slight modification” starting with something very simple and building up little by little to very complex. No life is simple. To start with a highly complex bacterium negated Darwin’s theory according to his own words.
Scientists discovered that even in the simplest cells there is an “irreducible complexity” that is required for life. Many complex parts have to function perfectly from the beginning for life to start. One cell is more complex than all of New York City. Millions of molecules, proteins, and parts do not just suddenly come together in perfect order for perfect functionality out of blind chaos.
The idea of “given enough time, enough trials, enough chance” a complex organism will suddenly come together, live, function, and reproduce contradicts Darwin’s explicit words on how evolution occurs. It is like putting a hundred monkeys at typewriters and coming out with Tolstoy’s War and Peace or Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. The simplest organism is more vastly complex than scientists understood in Darwin’s day. Darwin never suggested that an organism of great complexity would suddenly pop into existence given time, opportunity, and chance.
The organism has to start as a whole in order to live. A whole requires millions of molecules and organs functioning in perfect order. Darwin said that unless that organism was built up one step at a time “my theory would absolutely break down.”
For a full scientific investigation into irreducible complexity (complete wholeness from the beginning for a bacteria, a virus, a sponge, . . . a plant or animal to live and reproduce), read Dr. Michael J. Behe’s book, “Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution,” (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996) p. 39.
Verdict: Life Does Not Evolve One Little Step at a Time, Thus According to Darwin—His Theory Breaks Down
(5) One Species Evolving into a New Species
Evolution explains this as the slow, gradual transition from one species like a fish growing legs to evolve into another species like a frog. (It would also mean a whole new skin, new lungs, new heart, new physiological metabolism, etc. This is not one step; it is billions of complex changes.) There are fish that use fins to scoot up on shore. There is similar bone structure between some fins and some legs. However, there is no proof of gradual transition, step-by-step through healthy mutations or adaptations changing anatomy in successive generations, gradually changing form by form from one species to another species.
At UCD, a Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry was allowed to speak to my class of 500 students. He pulled out hundreds of scientific articles showing from paleontologists and archeologists that digs and research showed huge gaps of time between the appearances of groups of major life forms (from simple to complex). These archeological gaps did not prove evolution moving step-by-step producing little-by-little simple changes developing more-and-more complex life forms, but the sudden appearance of huge groups of life–each group more complex than the last. Then another huge gap in time, followed by another sudden appearance of different, more complex life forms. There were huge gaps of time with no changes, then huge leaps in the complexity of groups of living beings. The progression from group to group was following not only the groups predicted by evolution, but long before by Genesis chapter 1 in the Bible. But there were no slow transitions (Darwin), there were huge gaps and leaps (the Bible). (8)
Verdict: The evolution of one species into another is disproven by archeology.
(6) Spontaneous Generation
The view of evolution rests upon the theory that life started spontaneously in a rich pool of nutrients (like amino acids) hit by lightning producing the first one-celled living organism. Many, many experiments have tried to replicate this process. NOT ONE EXPERIMENT HAS EVER PRODUCED LIFE—EVEN IN ITS SIMPLEST FORM. (Besides, a lightning bolt can heat air to 50,000 degrees F. That’s 5sx hotter than the sun. There is no proof that such heat starts life, but a lot of proof that it stops it. No life can live on the sun, much less in an environment 5xs hotter.) Spontaneous generation has been disproven!
Few scientists hold to spontaneous generation anymore, even though some high school science classes still teach it. So the new theory put forth– without one shred of evidence (except Star Wars and Star Trek)– is that life started on another planet or in another universe (the multi-universe theory).
Verdict: The Theory of Spontaneous Generation has been proven FALSE
Some parts of evolution are true or partially true (mutations, natural selection, ontogeny resembling phylogeny). Other parts—the most critical parts for the foundation of evolution—have been proven false by lots of scientific experiments (such as, step-by-step small modifications over millions of years, evolution from one species to another species—and most important of all—spontaneous generation). These are the foundation of the evolutionary theory. These are false, therefore, the whole theory “absolutely breaks down” (to echo Darwin’s own words).
Through thousands of scientific experiments from scientists across nations, the theory of Chaotic Evolution (given enough time, enough chance, enough opportunities a complex organism like a bacterium will come into life through a random, small step-by-step assembly process) has been proven to be false. No one says that an organism with millions of complex parts pops into existence by random chance, enough time, and opportunity (even when put in the perfect environment of a test tube).
Why is evolution still taught? Inertia, tradition, coercion (loss of job at a university or school should anyone disagree). The theory hit hard in the early 20th century, entrenched, cemented and despite the great progress of science forward and proving it false (just like Galileo’s discovery that the earth revolves around the sun, thus bringing down great persecution upon this scientific genius from church and educational institutions) ingrained ideas die hard.
Very few scientists in the hard sciences (physics, chemistry, astrophysics, etc.) and even mathematics will tell you that they believe in evolution. A study was done at a university, where hard scientists were asked if they believed in evolution and most refused to say, “Yes.” They would say that science has proven that earth’s ecosystem is vastly more complex than evolution (with its step-by-step random assembly out of chaos) can explain.
What many hard scientists (like Behe in Darwin’s Black Box) do point out, is that this planet is “fine-tuned” with such extreme precision, complexity, and logical assembly that it is intelligently designed. And despite its vast complexity, intelligent humans can understand it.
If life reveals an intelligent design, then an Intelligence (God) designed it. So let’s quickly look at this view.
An Intelligence put together complex life forms and placed them in an environment that could sustain life (right temperature, oxygen level, amount of gravity, sunlight, water, food . . .) a whole lot of things had to come together in the biological organism and its environment for life to start, to maintain, to replicate. Billions of things had to come together perfectly all at once for one organism to live, to survive, and to replicate. This is irreducible complexity for life to exist. Irreducible complexity is in diametric contradiction to evolution.
The Intelligence placed in living plants and animals the abilities to mutate, to adapt to their changing environment (except when catastrophic), to live, and to replicate.
The Intelligence built each new species on a predetermined pattern that overlapped with previous patterns of anatomy/DNA/physiology in earlier species. Intelligence made ontogeny resemble the created order of things.
This Intelligent design proved intelligent evolution, not chaotic evolution. Intelligent evolution is also called creation by a Creator. In its beginning, God created each plant or animal at one time as a complex whole with totally perfected functioning (from the first bacterium to the first human) and gave each organism the dynamic flexibility to change with its environment for survival. Dynamic flexibility for change was designed into the body of each creature. That is why birds that have never seen a nest built, can later build a perfect nest for the propagation of their species. This is why some viruses mutate and prolong survival of their species. This was creative evolution. The Creator created life with the ability to evolve to a limited extent in order to survive and reproduce.
God, the Creator, created life with the ability to evolve.
Intelligent design is one of many proofs for the existence of God. Some scientists go from atheism to believing in God just from the overwhelming evidence produced through scientific research of Intelligent design on our planet and in our universe.
Each day in spring, I passed by one magnificent blooming tree as I walked onto the UC campus for science classes. I was agnostic and gave little thought to God. However, I was taking botany classes and labs that showed me the cellular structures of the roots, trunk, branches, leaves, and flowers of this overwhelmingly beautiful tree. I knew that from the tip of each root to the highest leaves in that tree that trillions of cells (cortex, phloem, stoma, chloroplasts, mitochondria, DNA, RNA, . . .) functioned in absolute harmony like an intelligently made machine; like a Ferrari or Lamborghini. Yet, it was a tree. It didn’t even have a brain. But billions of parts were perfectly and exquisitely ordered. So each day as I passed, I asked one question, How can a tree function like an intelligently made machine? Day after day, the same question came to my mind.
Then one day, the awesome answer struck me; “It functions like an intelligently-made machine because an Intelligence made it.”
- Image of DNA by Pete Linforth on Pixabay.
- Images from Skeeze on Pixabay.
- Image of Charles Darwin by WikiImage on Pixabay.
- Image by Dominic M. Contreras on Pexels.
- Image by NASA “Taken Under the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud”
- Drawing by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay
- DNA by Gerd Altman from Pixabay; DNA Model by Skeeze on Pixabay; Dr. Watson from Wikimedia.
- The Hebrew word for “day” in the KJV Bible is “yom.” It has many different translations across the Bible based on the context in which it is found. “Day” could mean a 12-hour period, a 24-hour period, an age or eons (millions of years). Archeological finds support the definition of “yom” as being a long, long period of time.
Translations of Yom
Usage across the KJV Bible: afternoon*(1), age(m)(7), age*(1), all the years(m)(1), always*(14), battle(1), birthday*(1), Chronicles*(38), completely*(m)(1), continually*(m)(14), course of time*(1), daily(22), daily amount*(m)(2), day(1118), daylight*(1), day’s(7), days(641), days ago(1), days'(11), each(m)(1), each day(m)(4), entire(2), eternity(m)(1), evening*(m)(1), ever*(m)(1), every day(2), fate(m)(1), first(m)(5), forever*(m)(11), forevermore*(m)(1), full(1), full year(1), full years(4), future*(m)(1), holiday*(3), later*(2), length(m)(1), life*(m)(2), life(12), lifetime*(m)(1), lifetime(m)(2), live(m)(1), long*(m)(11), long(m)(2), long live(1), midday*(1), now(m)(5), older*(1), once(2), period(4), perpetually*(2), present(m)(1), recently(1), reigns(m)(1), ripe age*(1), short-lived*(m)(1), so long*(m)(1), some time(1), survived*(m)(2), time(44), time*(m)(1), times*(2), today(172), today*(1), usual(m)(1), very old*(1), when(m)(11), whenever(1), while(3), whole(2), year(10), yearly(5), years(m)(8), yesterday*(1). (Found in Strong’s Concordance.)